A self-described dear friend of his patron, Boniface of Montferrat, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (c. 1180 – c. 1205) was a Provençal troubadour and knight who resided at a number of Italian courts before joining Boniface in the Fourth Crusade. He had accompanied Boniface on a number of other military excursions, including Emperor Henry VI’s invasion of Sicily in 1194. Among his twenty-six poems are cansos, a bilingual Provençal and Italian tenso with a female persona, a multilingual descort (with stanzas alternating in Old French, Gascon, Galician, Italian, and Provençal), and an epic letter to Boniface relating his (Boniface’s) many adventures. Eight associated melodies surivive.
Joseph Linskill, The Poems of the Troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (The Hague, 1964).
Miriam Cabré, “Italian and Catalan troubadours,” in The Troubadours: An Introduction. Cambridge: CUP, 1999, 127-140.
Roy Hagman. “The Multilingual Descort of Raimbaut de Vaqueiras: A Sociophilological Analysis.” Tenso 21, no.1 (2006): 16-35.
Roger Wright. “Romance and Ibero-Romance in the Descort of Raimbaut de Vaqueiras.” Latin et langues romanes: études linguistiques offertes à József Hermann. Sándor Kiss et al., eds. Tübingen: Niemeyer (2005): 463-472.
See also information on the Latin Empire of Constantinople from the French of Outremer site.
Summary by Michael Diaz de la Portilla